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  1. This is an argument task topic off of the ETS page. I used a random number generator to pick the topic, and timed it out to 30 minutes. I am using Magoosh as my study prep, so I am using the guidelines used from them! This is my first attempt at an argument task, so any help would be appreciated! Thanks in advance! Topic: The following is a letter to the editor of an environmental magazine. "Two studies of amphibians in Xanadu National Park confirm a significant decline in the numbers of amphibians. In 1975 there were seven species of amphibians in the park, and there were abundant numbers of each species. However, in 2002 only four species of amphibians were observed in the park, and the numbers of each species were drastically reduced. One proposed explanation is that the decline was caused by the introduction of trout into the park's waters, which began in 1975. (Trout are known to eat amphibian eggs.)" Write a response in which you discuss one or more alternative explanations that could rival the proposed explanation and explain how your explanation(s) can plausibly account for the facts presented in the argument. Essay: The argument that the introduction of trout into the park’s waters is to blame for the decrease of the number of amphibious species is flawed for numerous reasons. There are several different reasons and possibilities that a decrease in the numbers of species can occur. The fact that the trout were introduced in 1975, and almost 30 years later there’s a decrease in numbers, could be a mere coincidence. All species must compete for survival, even in parks. The seven original amphibious species in the park may have competed other species to extinction. The animals must compete for food, mating, shelter, water, and several other things. Therefor, seven species in close quarters in a park could have been too much demand on the environment, leading some species to fall off the grid. The time between 1975 and 2002 is almost 30 years, which can be well more than a lifetime in many species. Similar to how normal environments change, the park where these animals live also changes. A drop in numbers could have resulted in an environmental change such as more or less rain in certain years, or maybe the park’s management changed over the years, resulting in a change in the upkeep of the park facilities. The amount of how this park could have changed in a matter of 27 years is endless. The letter states that the trout were introduced in 1975 and 27 years later they noticed the decrease in the amphibians. Meaning, the amphibians could have dropped in numbers at any point between those times. It could simply be a happenchance that the trout were introduced into the park at that time. The amphibians could have started to slowly decrease before then, or they could have had a more drastic change maybe only a few years before the numbers were recorded in 2002. Since the statistics weren’t recorded on a normal basis, there is no way to show when this phenomenon occurred within the park, therefor not being able to blame the trout introduction. There is no obvious proof to show that the trout are the reason for the reduction of amphibians found in the park. There are several ways this could have occurred over the course of 27 years and a simple cause and effect does not account for the numerous other factors that should be considered in this conclusion.
  2. I'm using Magoosh as my GRE Study Prep, and following the guidelines they used! I got the topic off the ETS website and used a random generator to pick the topic. I timed myself exactly 30 minutes. This is my first attempt, so it's probably pretty rough :) and this is an Issue Task Essay! Topic: Educators should base their assessment of students' learning not on students' grasp of facts but on the ability to explain the ideas, trends, and concepts that those facts illustrate. Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the recommendation and explain your reasoning for the position you take. In developing and supporting your position, describe specific circumstances in which adopting the recommendation would or would not be advantageous and explain how these examples shape your position. Essay: Almost everyone at some point in their lifetime will take a test to assess their knowledge supposedly learned on a certain subject matter. Educators should base this assessment of a student’s knowledge, not simply by testing their factual remembrance and memory, but also by questioning how they can apply that information into real world situations. Schools and other educational programs have become to be known as teaching through memorization. They are assessing their students’ using test after test, and enforcing them to study via flashcards and other memory-strengthening tools. This continues throughout the length of the class, ending the program with similar assessments that they began with. This shows that the educators are focusing more on cramming the students with factual information, rather than them building upon the knowledge they have already been taught and assessing them in a new manner. While it is imperative for students to have and hold on to this knowledge of factual material, they must be able to understand the big picture in order to apply it to real world situations. Simply knowing or recognizing terminology will not suffice once they must use this knowledge they have learned into their field later in life. An aspiring scientist might know a single chemical reaction, but if they cannot apply this to a bigger, broader experiment, then the information can be deemed useless. With this being said, grasping facts is the foundation of their ability to explain bigger ideas and concepts of that subject. To an extent, assessing students’ understanding of the basic facts of a subject is imperative before expecting them to be able to comprehend and explain the more elusive concepts that make up everyday life. Therefor, teachers should assess students on their comprehension of factual information before moving on to more difficult material in the hierarchy of the subject. Though, this is not saying that these kinds of assessments should be the sole basis of the students’ understanding of an entire subject. Educators assessing the true knowledge learned by their students is much more complex than a simple factual multiple-choice test. Teachers need to go more in depth in their assessments in order to prove that their students’ can understand and explain difficult concepts and ideas regarding the subject they have apparently been teaching.
  3. Hi all!!! I'm an incoming senior at Purdue who is about to take her GRE for the first time in August. I am currently on a study plan with Magoosh. For those have relied on magoosh, did you feel this program helped prepare you for the test? What are some good tips for studying? What do you wish you knew/did differently? Best!~
  4. I'm using Magoosh to study for the GRE, and while I do great with the easy and medium questions, I struggle with a lot of the "hard" or "very hard" questions. I've heard that the math practice problems on Magoosh tend to be harder than what's actually on the test. Is this true?
  5. Hello! I take the GRE in 6 days. I'd like some advice on how my remaining time would best be spent studying (specifically math). I'm using Magoosh, and while I do great on the easy/medium questions, I really struggle with the hard or very hard ones. Should I continue practicing and mastering these medium level questions or should I focus on learning the hard ones? Also, I plan on applying to Ph.D. counseling psychology programs. Does anyone know how much GRE scores matter or how much weight is given to them for these kinds of programs?
  6. I currently have Manhattan for GRE, and my first test score was acceptable (163/160) but not for my top school. I've exhausted most of the materials and practice tests with Manhattan and was wondering if anyone is currently using Magoosh? How is it, do you feel the practice tests have been helpful?
  7. Today I begin my journey to take the GRE for the second time. I'll be honest, I didn't study at all last time I took the GRE almost a year and a half ago (not even a practice test; I must be crazy/stupid). Shockingly I was not pleased with my score. Who would have thought? Anyway I'm ready to take this seriously now. I'm trying to apply for PhD programs in psychology in the Fall of 2017. I've signed up for a GRE test on July 15th. That gives me about 5 months a prep time. I was wondering if anyone had some strong study plans? Currently, I have the following prep materials: Magoosh; The Princeton Review 1,007 GRE Practice Questions; Manhattan Prep 5 pound Book of GRE Practice Problems; and the Princeton Review Cracking the GRE. Magoosh has several study plans available, but none of them quite seemed to click with me (mostly they required me to buy even MORE prep supplies). Has anyone else used an effective study plan (perhaps with a quantitative focus) that is less specific on what materials you should use? Also, as a side questions. Does anyone have advice for what they wish they had done when studying?
  8. I'm taking the GRE for the first time in a few days, and I would really like it if anyone could help critique my essays. I have no idea where my essay scores lie on the GRE scale from 0-6, so if anyone has any advice or comments, please let me know! I would really like to improve as much as I can in the next few days, if possible. Anything is appreciated! Prompt 1 (Issue Task): The best leaders are those who encourage feedback from the people whom they lead. Essay 1: Leaders throughout history have all lead in their own way. Some do their best on their own, while others create the best solutions with their people by their side. Regardless, understanding the minds of citizens around you is a key aspect to governing. If you stand as a leader, it is important to encourage feedback from people around you. This will not only allow the people to feel involved in decision-making, but it will also provide different perspectives. Having more than one idea on an issue can lead to better governing in that it will give the leader a look from multiple angles. If a leader were to decide how to resolve all issues alone, it may be more difficult for the leader to succeed by reducing the likelihood of a problem being solved in the best way. Encouraging others to give their opinions on an issue will also create stronger future leaders. Great leaders should be able to share their wisdom and power with others while holding the ability to maintain a firm leadership on their own. If a powerful person is in charge and asks those around him to use their minds to help resolve an issue at hand, the people will grow in intelligence and confidence as a whole. Although having opinions of others can prove to be beneficial a lot of the time, there are also times where it is appropriate for a difficult decision to be made alone. Sometimes having different viewpoints from many people can make a decision more challenging. Hearing what others have to say can add bias to a solution, and sometimes the direction that the majority votes towards may not always be the best. If a leader is leaning toward one side, but the people are leaning toward the other, this may negatively impact the leader's decision. It is important to note that if someone is in charge, they are in charge for a reason, and the people must be able to trust their leader's judgement. Some of the world's best leaders lead alongside with their people. It is important to be wit others. Prompt 2 (Argument Task): The following was presented as part of a business plan by Apex Corporation. "To answer the increased demand for artisan coffee, Apex Corporation is releasing a new line of coffee, "Gourmet Select." Apex Corporation will first introduce the coffee into major supermarkets, where it hopes word-of-mouth advertising will sustain sales. After a few months Apex Corp. will run an advertising campaign aimed at television and radio while simultaneously releasing the brand to several major chain restaurants. Based on this strategy, Apex Corporation hopes to make "Gourmet Select" one of the top sellers in the coffee market." Essay 2: Many companies attempt and fail at making a new product a success, and oftentimes, it is the business plan that is responsible. Apex Corporation's business plan is weak and flawed in several ways. Firstly, an increased demand for artisan coffee will not necessarily be solved by introducing "Gourmet Select," a new line of coffee. Buyers may not want a new product but rather, more of an original product. Gourmet Select may not bring the same taste or be of the same quality as those products that consumers are already used to. Releasing a new line of coffee does not mean that the demand for artisan coffee will be met. Furthermore, the next step in Apex Corporation's business plan is a poor step because sustaining sales can require more than simply word-of-mouth advertising. Introducing Gourmet Select to major supermarkets may help sales increase a little, but there's no telling how much it will help sales. Relying on customers to spread the word of a new line of coffee is at the very least naive. If customers dislike the new coffee product, they may advertise the product negatively. Many factors of the new coffee line such as quality, taste, and smell must all be stellar for Apex Corporation to be confident in selling their coffee through word-of-mouth, but there is no way to know this through the presented business plan. Finally, advertising on the television, on the radio, and through major chain restaurants may increase sales, but it does not guarantee that Gourmet Select will become one of the top sellers in the coffee market. The product itself must prove to be of top quality in every aspect to make its way to the top of the coffee market, but this business plan mentions nothing of the product's quality. This argument should include reviews on Gourmet Select in order to predict how it will sell in the public market. Due to a number of flaws and weak assumptions, it can be concluded that this business plan will fail. Apex Corporation should review and improve each step in this strategy for a chance to make Gourmet Select a success.
  9. Hey everyone! I'm new to the forum so please bare with me! I'm about to be 26 years old and I finally decided to pursue my dream of becoming a licensed school psychologist. So far, I've been given the opportunity to interview at Fairleigh Dickinson University for their MA School Psychology program (accredited and have a Psy.D advanced standing track). I was recently accepted to Long Island University- Hudson for an M.S in School Psychology with Bilingual Extension (Not accredited), and Iona College for an MA in School Psychology (accredited). I plan on moving to Florida but I did not make the application deadline for the University of Central Florida's School Psychology EdS program, and it's unlikely that I would get in. Here's my dilema, I meet above all of the requirements for Nova Southeastern University's Psy.D program (and I really want to get in!) EXCEPT the GRE standard cut-off score. What my goal is for this specific program is a combined score of at least a 300. The first time I took the GRE I scored very low (combined score of 274). In my defense, math was never my best subject and I also did not prepare for the GRE at all (I did not study and I did not know anything about the test format, length, etc.) and I kind of went in blind. My question is will it be possible for me to go up 26 points on my GRE? I purchased the ETS GRE prep book straight from the makers of GRE and I was thinking of using Magoosh what do you guys think? Is Magoosh trustworthy or should I try a private tutor? Thank you guys Alex
  10. I've been working really hard to better my score in the other sections, but haven't hit the essay portion of the test as well as I would've like...Thanks in advance for taking a look at this. Everything you need is below. Here is an official scoring guide as well for ya: https://www.ets.org/gre/revised_general/prepare/analytical_writing/argument/scoring_guide Prompt: The following is taken from a memo from the advertising director of the Super Screen Movie Production Company. "According to a recent report from our marketing department, during the past year, fewer people attended Super Screen-produced movies than in any other year. And yet the percentage of positive reviews by movie reviewers about specific Super Screen movies actually increased during the past year. Clearly, the contents of these reviews are not reaching enough of our prospective viewers. Thus, the problem lies not with the quality of our movies but with the public's lack of awareness that movies of good quality are available. Super Screen should therefore allocate a greater share of its budget next year to reaching the public through advertising." Write a response in which you discuss what questions would need to be answered in order to decide whether the recommendation and the argument on which it is based are reasonable. Be sure to explain how the answers to these questions would help to evaluate the recommendation. My response: In the argument stating Super Screen should spend more money on advertising movies, the author makes several unwarrated assumptions. First of all, the author states that the marketing department reported increased positive reviews, but only on specific movies. It is unclear at this point what types of movies the survey reported satisfaction ratings on. For example, the survey could have just asked those who took the survey how they felt about the good movies that Super Screen produced, and left the bad movies out. It is possible that Super Screen produced bad movies that no one wanted to see, and this may be the reason for the lack of people attending the movies, but we are not told what these "specific Super Screen movies" are and, thus, can not assume that all the movies are "good" ones. To make this a fair report, the marketing department could attempt sharing with the audience proof that Super Screen movies that recieved a satisfaction rating were random. Donig so would ensure the audience that the satisfaction rating of those movies were fair. Also, provides faulty reasoning that these surveys reached the same pool as all the other mentioned years. Perhaps, these surveys were given ot a remote population that were unfamiliar with Super Screen movies. The author even neglects to share with the audience that the survey questions were even the same as last year. Therefore, the audience has no reason to believe that these surveys were not biased in some way. Another obvious fallacy in this argument is that the only thing that could bring people to watch Super Screen movies is the advertisement. Since the author does not tell us where these movies can be watched, we are left not knowing that maybe customer service, price, or even acessability could be a potetntial problem as well. All these problems could prevent people from watching their movies also. In sum, to make the author's argument more sound, the author would need to define what specific movies the reviewers reported on, and provide information about what methods the marketing department gained this report. Without more information, the reader of this argument has no way to conclude if spending more of the budget really is the best choice in this case.
  11. Taking the GRE is just a few days! I've been working really hard on the other sections, but am worrying a bit about the essays...Thanks in advance for looking at this,everything you need is below. Here is a scoring guide as well: https://www.ets.org/gre/revised_general/prepare/analytical_writing/issue/scoring_guide The Issue: The best way for a society to prepare its young people for leadership in government, industry, or other fields is by instilling in them a sense of cooperation, not competition. Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the claim. In developing and supporting your position, be sure to address the most compelling reasons and/or examples that could be used to challenge your position. My response: In the before mentioned statement the author states that instilling a sense of cooperation, not competition, will better prepare the youth of a society for leadership roles. To the contrary, I myself agree that with a correct balance of the two qualities, competition will induce leadership for the next generation of leaders. First, one must recognize the fact that competition rears growth. This is what makes the capitalistic economy in America so great. For instance, businesses of all kinds are able to compete with each other to better appeal to their consumer. In order to maintain and increase productivity, they must continue trying and experimenting with the product so that consumer is more likely to buy from their company. This is advantageouss to the society, because -since these companies are allowed to compete- new and improved products are available to choose from. In addition, creativity will spark one's imagination to think critically and for oneself. If one is only taught to be exactly obedient in all things, then we could not grow as a society, thus hindering the creativity, as partly discussed in the above paragraph. In short, every member in the society would be nothing more than a robot, not able to think for themselves. At the same time, competition could easily be taken to the extreme. Someone that is too competitive can be a danger to society. For example, in presidential elections, some politicians will go as far as to lie and spread falsehoods about the opposing candidate in an effort to win the vote from the public. In this way, too much competition could damage a person's good caracter or create ill will for another person. One must remember to balance competition with a good dose of cooperation as to be fair to all parties in society. In the end, when preparing the next generation for taking on leadership roles in society, the older generation must not forget to teach friendly competition along with a fair dosage of cooperation. Forgetting to teach one without the other would mean shorthanding those young people, and suffering from inevitable future consequences.
  12. Some weeks ago, I took the first of the two PowerPrep exams after going over the GRE's quantitative content in their quantitative prep book and doing the practice questions. I got a 170V and a 164Q. I had done no real verbal prep besides doing a few vocab apps on the bus en route to work over the past month or so. These were good scores, but I wanted to improve my math performance (and touch up on the Verbal section: I missed one critical reading question but still got 170 with the curve), so I subscribed to Magoosh. They seemed to have an extensive bank of questions they wrote. With only one exception, the questions I missed on the quantitative section of the first PowerPrep exam were careless mistakes. So my goal with Magoosh was really to have an extensive bank of test-prep questions to drill down on the discipline and test-taking technique necessary to avoid careless errors. And their large number of questions seemed like a good fit for that particular task. While I don't score as consistently well on the "Hard" or "Very Hard" Magoosh questions as I would have tended to anticipate, I'm somewhat skeptical that many of the tactics that separate those who answer the Magoosh questions successfully from those who don't are necessarily tactics or strategies that will prove valuable on the GRE exam itself (though some certainly seem like they could be). It is, of course, possible that my PowerPrep I score was simply an aberration and that Magoosh is giving me a more accurate forecast of future test scores. Has anyone else been in a similar situation of scoring (relatively) highly on the first PowerPrep exam? The situation, here, being that I scored fairly well on the first PowerPrep exam and now want to make the minor improvements that seem like they could get my score up to the ceiling, but am now feeling as if third-party content is introducing to at least some extent a different set of "signals" into their questions than does the GRE. I'm leaning towards using Magoosh to brush-up on certain content areas of the quantitative section, but turning to extremely close scrutiny of ETS-produced material for general test prep and for critical reading questions. This seems like a marked departure from what the consensus on GRE prep boards like these would have you believe, but it does not necessarily seem like the consensus wisdom is well-suited for help in raising a 164 Q / 170V to a straight 340. While I'm still somewhat hesitant to base a test-prep strategy on the PowerPrep II first exam alone, I've done the "practice problem sets" in the GRE quant book and have been doing fairly well, so I don't think there is a TON of noise in that score. Anyhow, advice appreciated. Thanks for reading!
  13. This is my first go at this. Because I timed myself, it may be rough (and maybe easier for you to grade). I understand I may need more length to this, but I am more interested in critiques on having clearly addressed the instructions and the creativity in persuading the audience. Here is a scoring guide to help: https://www.ets.org/gre/revised_general/prepare/analytical_writing/issue/scoring_guide Everything else is below. Thank you in advance! Prompt: The best way to teach is to praise positive actions and ignore negative ones. Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the recommendation and explain your reasoning for the position you take. In developing and supporting your position, describe specific circumstances in which adopting the recommendation would or would not be advantageous and explain how these examples shape your position. My essay: Correct methods of teachings have been explored, experimeted, and evolved within the past few decades. To a great measure, the public at large is interested in how to better teach students, children, and their collegues. In the preceeding paragraph, the author states that the best method of teaching is to praise positive actions, and ignore the negative ones. In my view, the best way to teach is not so simple as to praise positive actions and ignore the negative ones, but to address why those negative actions are wrong. Everyone is probably familiar with the phrase, “we learn from our mistakes.” In reality, one may learn just as much learn from their mistakes as they learn from their successes. The light bulb, an essential appliance to the modern-day industry, was tried and experimented over a hundred times before the recipe was finally realized. Thus, clear differentiating between what is good and what is bad, what is helpful and what is not, is necessary to successful teaching. Consider, for example, a bulgary occurred today at the local bank. If the local police ignored the bulgary, that, of course, would not help prevent future bulgaries. Secondly, if a teacher only praises positive actions, the person acting may not be truly convinced to continue those good actions. A child, for example, may become accustomed to doing good deeds only if there is a reward involved. Therefore, good intentions may be absent from the child, and may only practice good actions when the reward is present. In conclusion, it is clear how simply praising positive acitons and ignoring negative ones is a lesser form of teaching. Successful teaching comes from adressing mistakes and correcting them so that positive actions can be practiced in more abundance.
  14. So, this was my first go at it, so it'll probably be easy for you to grade. Having said that, I know I need to work on getting more length within the 30 minute time frame. I'm more interested what you think about how fluid the essay is and what assumptions you think I missed or also could have focused on. Also, here is some grading criteria that might help:https://www.ets.org/gre/revised_general/prepare/analytical_writing/argument/scoring_guide. Everything else is here below. Thank you in advance! The prompt: The council of Maple County, concerned about the county's becoming overdeveloped, is debating a proposed measure that would prevent the development of existing farmland in the county. But the council is also concerned that such a restriction, by limiting the supply of new housing, could lead to significant increases in the price of housing in the county. Proponents of the measure note that Chestnut County established a similar measure ten years ago, and its housing prices have increased only modestly since. However, opponents of the measure note that Pine County adopted restrictions on the development of new residential housing fifteen years ago, and its housing prices have since more than doubled. The council currently predicts that the proposed measure, if passed, will result in a significant increase in housing prices in Maple County. Write a response in which you discuss what questions would need to be answered in order to decide whether the prediction and the argument on which it is based are reasonable. Be sure to explain how the answers to these questions would help to evaluate the prediction. My essay: The preceeding argument states that housing prices in Maple County will significantly increase if restrictions on housing developemnt are placed on the county’s farmland. This premise is not valid, as it relies on too many unsound assumptions. First, by believing that the housing prices will increase as they did in Pine County, the argument assumes that Maple County has to be similar to Pine County. Perhaps, the houses built in Maple County would be more affordable for the people there, than in Pine county. Because the argument paragraph neglects to state similarities between the two counties, the reader has no way of knowing how one county could follow the same trend as another, ultimately having same effect from the restriciton. To strengthen the premise, the author should describe to the reader the similarities Maple County has to Pine County, and the people there, reenforcing why the housing prices would rise. Another assumption that the argument fails to recognize is how things may change over time. It is stated that the housing prices in Pine County more than doubled from the same restricitons, but this was over 15 years ago. Therefore, the author believes that what was true fifeteen years ago, is true today. Even if we treated these counties as equal, this is an obvious fallacy because maybe the economy is better today for Maple County than it was back then for Pine County, and thus, the effect may favor more to that of Chestnut County, only increasing moderately. To make the argument more believable, the author must give reasons why the economics of today are similar to the economics fifeteen years ago for Pine County. In conclusion, the author relies on several unwarranted assumptions to prove that the predicted result of Maple County’s plan will be similar to that of Pine County’s.
  15. Hi all, if you could please, please take a moment to evaluate these short writings for me I would really appreciate it. Also any thoughts on how long these should be generally? I added the word count at the bottom of each. One is an issue prompt and the other and argument prompt, with the topics above it. Issue prompt 30 mins Universities should require every student to take a variety of courses outside the student's field of study. Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the claim. In developing and supporting your position, be sure to address the most compelling reasons and/or examples that could be used to challenge your position. The career trajectory of recent generations is in stark contrast to what it was just a few generations earlier. In fact millennials today switch jobs on average every year or two and often take a few years in between college before returning to a graduate program of choice. The motivation for young professionals has shifted to life and job satisfaction and finding something that they can imagine themselves doing for the rest of their lives. The job and career landscape for the college post-graduate is changing therefore the curriculum in colleges should change as well. Many universities have already begun to move away from the traditional topics of study and have added additional courses into their programs. These changes include adding less studied languages or fields of research such as epidemiology which students used to not learn about until college or perhaps even in graduate programs. These changes allow students the opportunity to have access to a much wider variety of topics. This is important because it gives students exposure to topics or fields of study that awaken new passions and interest that could really motivate them to succeed both in college and in a post college job. By being exposed to more topics of study students would be able to more accurately seek out jobs after graduation or perhaps go directly into a graduate program. This may eliminate the years that millenials are now spending ‘wandering’ through multiple jobs post-graduation, while struggling to find what they are truly passionate about. However, the extent to changing the college curriculum comes with a limit. One would disagree with the above statement if it shows that including too many classes outside of a student’s main field of study leads to lagging graduation times and a lack of focus which impairs the student’s ability to hone in on a single skill. If the college education is too generalized students may be graduating with little to no skill sets that would have helped them be more competitive candidates in the job market. The extent of the effect changing the curriculum has on a student’s success while in school and then post-studies is vital in correctly assessing the above statement. Our goals as educators should be first and foremost to equip students with the capabilities to succeed long-term. WC:391 Argument prompt 30 mins The following appeared as part of a letter to the editor of a scientific journal. "A recent study of eighteen rhesus monkeys provides clues as to the effects of birth order on an individual's levels of stimulation. The study showed that in stimulating situations (such as an encounter with an unfamiliar monkey), firstborn infant monkeys produce up to twice as much of the hormone cortisol, which primes the body for increased activity levels, as do their younger siblings. Firstborn humans also produce relatively high levels of cortisol in stimulating situations (such as the return of a parent after an absence). The study also found that during pregnancy, first-time mother monkeys had higher levels of cortisol than did those who had had several offspring." Write a response in which you discuss one or more alternative explanations that could rival the proposed explanation and explain how your explanation(s) can plausibly account for the facts presented in the argument. This study seems to be making significant assumptions and correlations that would require further studies to confirm. First, it seems to imply that firstborn offspring produce more cortisol because a first time mother also produces more cortisol during the first pregnancy. More information regarding the environment would be necessary. Perhaps the increase in cortisol in the mothers is not directly related to the birth order but instead on the fact that the mother feels more alone during a first time pregnancy than when she already has another offspring to comfort her. Similarly, with a firstborn infant monkey the fact that they are the oldest could increase their feelings of attachment to the mother and therefore they are reacting to an unfamiliar monkey as a thread. While the younger offspring may either be too young to quite grasp the situation or too young to have developed the necessary attachment feelings to the mother. Thus, the levels of cortisol may alternatively be related to the child’s developmental stages, the amount of bonding and attachment it has been able to create for the mother and younger siblings and the environment itself. It is not necessarily a direct result of birth order or due to first time mothers also having more cortisol during the first pregnancy. WC: 212
  16. I took a full-length Magoosh practice test (including both essays) and scored Q149 and V164. Two weeks and more prep work later, I took the PowerPrep I test and was surprised to see a far lower verbal score: 157 (quant remained the same). That drop is three points larger than the lower range Magoosh predicted for verbal. The only reason I can think of to account for the big drop in verbal is making test five hours long by a foolish coincidence. I started taking the "demo" PowerPrep test thinking it was the real thing - that involved writing two full essays and answering about half a section's worth of verbal and quant questions. Then I realized my mistake and immediately started taking the real practice test, so I might have been exhausted. But then again, why a drop in verbal and not math scores? A bit confused. I thought verbal was my strong suit. Thanks for any insights.
  17. Has anyone with a Magoosh GRE premium account taken the Magoosh practice test? Did you feel like it was worth your time as far as predicting a somewhat accurate score? How does it compare to ETS powerprep software practice tests? My GRE exam is on Friday. Not sure if I should spend my last few days taking practice tests or just reviewing relevant material.
  18. Hey just wanted to give everyone a heads up that magoosh is having an extra 20% off sale today because of Valentine's Day. Got the 6 month package for $80 instead of the usual $100. I'd been waiting for something like this to make me purchase so I finally did haha
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