School: Large Public Research University (40-45 ranked math department - USnews ranking) Major: Mathematics, Computer Science Minor: Economics GPA (Cumulative): 3.81/4.00 (Math): 3.9 Mathematics Coursework: Calculus I,II,II (A-,B,A-), Discrete Math (Intro to proofs) (B+), Linear Algebra (Proof-Based) (A), Ordinary Differential Equations (A), Real Analysis I (A-), Real Analysis II (A), Abstract Algebra I (A-), Complex Analysis (A), Linear and Nonlinear Optimization (A), Financial Mathematics (pretty much just a course in stochastic calculus) (A), Numerical Analysis (next year), Partial Differential Equations (next year) Statistics/CS Coursework: Probability Theory (A), Statistical Theory (A), Graduate Machine Learning (A), Data Mining (A), Financial Econometrics (A), Time Series (next year) Math Courses with Ws (and then retook for A/A-): Calculus III, Abstract Algebra I, Probability Theory GRE Scores: 169Q, 165V, 4AW (I was going to apply this year, but decided to finish up my computer science degree by taking a 5th year, and add some more research to my profile) Letters: 2 from professors having done research, 1 from professor I took several classes with (opportunity to do research with next year too - see below) Research: -non-relevant to statistics (both in number theory): Semester Research Project, Summer REU -relevant: year long research opportunity (if I accept - see below) PhD Programs (preferred) : Chicago, Michigan, Harvard, CMU (joint machine learning - honestly, I never see anyone get admitted to this though), Berkeley, Wisconsin, Penn, Penn St, Duke, University of North Carolina, North Carolina State, Columbia, Cornell, Purdue, UCLA MS Programs: Harvard, Stanford, Chicago, CMU, Berkeley, Duke, Washington, UCLA (trying to keep this top heavy, since the consensus is that masters are easier to be admitted to) I have quite a bit of interest in machine learning, and would prefer going to a program that has some faculty doing research in this area, but I wouldn't say it is a deal breaker (i.e. if I was admitted to Chicago I'd go, regardless of the minimal research in ML). Some Questions: 1. I have four W's, three of which are in relevant mathematics classes (listed above). I was struggling financially at the time, father was laid off and not able to find steady work. During these periods, often of which were not given with much heads-up, I had to take on 40 - 60 hours of work and could just not keep pace will all of my courses. Figured it probably better to withdraw and retake, rather than take a C. How much weight will this have on my application? 2. Would it be more beneficial to complete a undergraduate thesis OR one year of statistics relevant research with a professor?