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Writing a statement of purpose in linguistics


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Hi everyone. I wanted to have some opinions on this before showing my statement of purpose to a couple professors. I was just wondering what an outline of a statement of purpose should look like. For example:

 

1. How long should it be?

2. How should it be structured? (a paragraph for an intro, a paragraph for interests in semantics, for research interests, etc.)

3. How much should I talk about interests on the side? I'm pretty interested in logic, philosophy of language, philosophy of mind and cognitive science so I want to take courses on those too.

4. Does the statement of purpose have to be customized for each school? I'd rather not do this if possible.

5. Should I mention my goals for a dissertation?

6. Is it bad that I have zero interest in phonology? I despise it. Should I write about it?

 

Here's my outline:

 

Intro: Mentioning main areas of interest (philosophy of language and semantics for me).

Body 1: Summarizing previous research in philosophy of language & outline my goal for a dissertation (to build an truth-conditional theory of meaning based on mental representations rather than external-world referents)

Body 2: Potential other research interests in semantics

Body 3: Potential research interests in syntax

Body 4: Some research interests on the side (what I mentioned earlier)

Conclusion: I'm not sure what to say here lol. Maybe I won't put a conclusion.

 

Thanks for reading.

Edited by Chiki
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1. How long should it be?

If there is no word/page limit, I'd aim for 1.5-2 pages. That's roughly 750 words, could be more. Personally once it gets over 1000 I almost always feel like it could have been shorter and still make all the same points.

 

2. How should it be structured? (a paragraph for an intro, a paragraph for interests in semantics, for research interests, etc.)

That kind of depends but there are roughly two ways people go. The first is maybe more traditional - (a) start with a hook, usually a story about how you got interested in X; (b ) talk about your background, especially your undergrad experience, zoom in on field/subfield of interest and maybe share some experience related to that; (c ) discuss your research interests in more detail; (d) discuss why XYZ University is an awesome place to study X (=the fit paragraph). This should mention specific professors who work in related areas by name, and it can mention other things that attract you to the school as well - it can be specific courses or tracks, certificates that are offered, established collaboration with sister departments, any resources, labs, libraries that would help your work, proximity to speakers of a language you work on, etc. (if it's a lot, make it two paragraphs - one for profs, one for "other"); (e) broad future goals, conclusion. Another structure, which I think works very well if you have well defined research interests - (a) start with your research interests and why they are exciting; (b ) the fit paragraph - why XYZ University is the best place to study X; (c ) discuss how your background and how it prepares you to study your interests (possibly two paragraphs, one for general undergrad experiences, one for more specific experiences like RAships or a senior thesis or whatnot);  (d) circle back to current/future plans, link what you've done to what you hope to do next; discuss future plans, conclusion, etc.

 

3. How much should I talk about interests on the side? I'm pretty interested in logic, philosophy of language, philosophy of mind and cognitive science so I want to take courses on those too.

This depends on the school. Some departments have an established system that will allow you to take classes outside of linguistics, and then it makes perfect sense to mention this interest. Other departments don't make it easy (though the website may mention this possibility, but you want to know that it actually happens). If you mention an interest in doing something that is actually not going to be possible and you play it up, it will make your fit with the program less strong. (And you need to decide if you'd be ok going to such a school and not getting to take these extra classes.)

 

4. Does the statement of purpose have to be customized for each school? I'd rather not do this if possible.

Your interests are your interests, your background is your background. You may choose to play up or play down certain aspects of it based on the school, and that's worth doing. You also obviously want to customize the fit paragraph for each school. So you'll probably end up working with one skeleton and making some changes for each school, but you don't need to write a new statement each time.

 

5. Should I mention my goals for a dissertation?

I would not. It's hardly ever the case that people work on the same topic that they came in with from undergrad for their dissertation. Even if it does end up being the same topic, often you'll have a different perspective in some way or you'll ask different questions than interest you right now. It would be very closed minded to have already made up your mind before even starting your program. Be open to the possibility that you'll grow and your interests will be informed by your studies in unforeseen ways. In fact, if you don't grow or evolve in some way, I'd say you should ask for your money back -- that's not a good education!  

 

I think it makes more sense to treat this as your 'current interests' and what you hope to study in school, but not discuss it as your dissertation project. I really do think you're just not in a position to choose that project yet.

 

6. Is it bad that I have zero interest in phonology? I despise it. Should I write about it?

No, don't write about that. Any linguistics program out there will make you take first year phonology, then if you still don't like it you can pretty much never do it again. It's fine not to be equally invested in all the subfields, it's even normal. Keep the statement positive and only write about the things you do care about. Do keep in mind that people sometimes have a complete change of heart and go from semantics to phonology or vice versa, so never say never; and as a linguistics professor, you'll have to teach some phonology in intro classes. So again, dismissing something out of hand from the get-go, just like knowing the end result of your education before you even started, can seem very closed minded. 

 

(thoughts on the second half coming soon.)

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I would not. It's hardly ever the case that people work on the same topic that they came in with from undergrad for their dissertation. Even if it does end up being the same topic, often you'll have a different perspective in some way or you'll ask different questions than interest you right now. 

 

I've taken a lot of graduate-level courses (by the time I graduate, I'll have taken all the first year PhD courses in syntax and semantics here, the first and second semester ones for first year PhD students, and around 10 graduate-level courses in philosophy), so I think it's unlikely my opinion will change that much when I go to grad school. So this makes me think that it might not be too soon at all to talk about it. But I'll keep this in mind for when I talk to professors about this as well.

 

Thank you so much for your advice.

Edited by Chiki
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I've taken a lot of graduate-level courses (by the time I graduate, I'll have taken all the first year PhD courses in syntax and semantics here, the first and second semester ones for first year PhD students, and around 10 graduate-level courses in philosophy), so I think it's unlikely my opinion will change that much when I go to grad school. So this makes me think that it might not be too soon at all to talk about it. But I'll keep this in mind for when I talk to professors about this as well.

 

Thank you so much for your advice.

 

Two things. 

 

First, never say never. Seriously. If you have ever told yourself "X is so boring, I don't understand why anybody would care. I will never work on X," mark my words. At some point in your future there will be more X, and it will be unavoidable. Sometimes you suffer, but other times you learn it's actually interesting, now that it affects your research and you have a personal connection to the data. (Ask around, everybody has topics like this in their lives.)

 

Second, I just completely fail to see how it's relevant. If you were a prospective student who came to me as a professor and instead of telling me all the things that you're excited about, you'd spend your time telling me how other subfields don't interest you, I'd just be confused about what you're trying to achieve. It's fine not to like all the subfields. It probably won't get you out of first-year classes, but either way once first year is over you can just be done and move on with your life. This is grad school, everybody expects that you'll develop specific interests in a specific subfield (or an interface) and that you won't care about everything equally. It's the natural progression of every program out there. Why would this be a topic for discussion with anyone? Again, the SOP is a place to discuss your interests, not the things that you don't care about.

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Ah, I was replying to the bit about writing on dissertation topics in the statement of purpose. I meant to say I doubt my opinions on internalism and such will change at grad school. So I think it might be fine to talk about possible dissertation topics.

 

You seem to have thought that I was replying to the phonology stuff? The only thing I know about phonology is from intro to linguistics, so yeah, you're right about that. I'll be quiet about that and maybe I'll enjoy it in the future.

Edited by Chiki
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Hi Chiki, 

 

It's great that you've taken some advanced courses, and have a sense of what graduate classwork is like. Nevertheless, I think it will come across the wrong way to the adcom if you give a dissertation proposal (or even talk about dissertation!) in your SOP. I fear it will make you come across as naive and uninformed, or too inflexible, or both. During your graduate career, there are several milestones that you have to pass before you even get to write your dissertation proposal. And this is for a good reason! I second Fuzzy's advice about sticking with current interests. 

Edited by funchaku
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Ah, I was replying to the bit about writing on dissertation topics in the statement of purpose. I meant to say I doubt my opinions on internalism and such will change at grad school.

 

Oh, I see. Sorry about the confusion. I would still advise you to keep an open mind, for your own sake. You're about to embark on a 5-year+ program and what you think is the most fascinating topic now may morph into something else, or be abandoned in favor of another project, who knows. You'll learn things you don't even know about now, and one can only hope that they will inform your research 5 years from now. As I said above, if you leave with the exact same knowledge and beliefs you came with and you aren't open to the possibility of change, what's the point of going to grad school in the first place? You know what you want to do coming into grad school, and that's what you should be talking about. Defining your dissertation project now just seems premature. You can still include all the same discussion, but just talk about it as the project you hope to pursue once in school, which is a more immediate (and feasible) goal. The outcomes of this project that you propose to start now may very well inform what you choose to do for your dissertation, but -- again -- that will only happen several years down the line.

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Hi fuzzylogician

 


Second, I just completely fail to see how it's relevant. If you were a prospective student who came to me as a professor and instead of telling me all the things that you're excited about, you'd spend your time telling me how other subfields don't interest you, I'd just be confused about what you're trying to achieve. 

 

I have a very keen interest in language evolution and it is really central to my current research project. However, sometime language evolution seems to be taken for a byword for the origin of language and/or biolinguistics, which are not really my field of interest. Worse, I get the impression that within the linguistic community the origin of language is often a topic viewed with a bit of derision or even dismissed as an unscientific or impossible field. (case in point the 1866 Linguistic Society of Paris ban on debates about the origin of language) 

 

Since my interest in language evolution is with the view of language itself as a complex adaptive system, should I try to distance myself from these other fields by clarifying my interest? Its not that I'm entirely disinterest in these other fields, just that they don't bear directly on my line of questioning. Would this be a scenario where its worth mentioning things that I'm not interested in?

 

p.s. I love the depth with which you've responded to Chiki's post. Thank you

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Oh, I see. Sorry about the confusion. I would still advise you to keep an open mind, for your own sake. You're about to embark on a 5-year+ program and what you think is the most fascinating topic now may morph into something else, or be abandoned in favor of another project, who knows. You'll learn things you don't even know about now, and one can only hope that they will inform your research 5 years from now. As I said above, if you leave with the exact same knowledge and beliefs you came with and you aren't open to the possibility of change, what's the point of going to grad school in the first place? You know what you want to do coming into grad school, and that's what you should be talking about. Defining your dissertation project now just seems premature. You can still include all the same discussion, but just talk about it as the project you hope to pursue once in school, which is a more immediate (and feasible) goal. The outcomes of this project that you propose to start now may very well inform what you choose to do for your dissertation, but -- again -- that will only happen several years down the line.

 

 

Hi Chiki, 

 

It's great that you've taken some advanced courses, and have a sense of what graduate classwork is like. Nevertheless, I think it will come across the wrong way to the adcom if you give a dissertation proposal (or even talk about dissertation!) in your SOP. I fear it will make you come across as naive and uninformed, or too inflexible, or both. During your graduate career, there are several milestones that you have to pass before you even get to write your dissertation proposal. And this is for a good reason! I second Fuzzy's advice about sticking with current interests. 

 

Excellent. Thank you.

 

(Fuzzy, would it be annoying of me to ask you to do the second part some time in the future? I like your posts.)

Edited by Chiki
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Excellent. Thank you.

 

(Fuzzy, would it be annoying of me to ask you to do the second part some time in the future? I like your posts.)

 

Sorry, I am preparing materials for a seminar I am teaching tomorrow so things are slow, but I'll try and get back to it later tonight or tomorrow. The short version is I think there is sort of an imbalance and there are parts that are missing from the essay right now, and I'm not sure how that will come across to the adcom. I'll say more later. 

 

(Ziggy, same goes for you!)

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Sorry, I am preparing materials for a seminar I am teaching tomorrow so things are slow, but I'll try and get back to it later tonight or tomorrow. The short version is I think there is sort of an imbalance and there are parts that are missing from the essay right now, and I'm not sure how that will come across to the adcom. I'll say more later. 

 

(Ziggy, same goes for you!)

 

No need to rush at all. I appreciate that you're taking your time for this anyway.

Edited by Chiki
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Hi all,

 

just let me thank you for this useful (so useful!!!) discussion! It is proving incredibly enlightening in revising my final (of course, who am I kidding) draft.

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OK, I'm back.

 

Here's my outline:

 

Intro: Mentioning main areas of interest (philosophy of language and semantics for me).

Body 1: Summarizing previous research in philosophy of language & outline my goal for a dissertation (to build an truth-conditional theory of meaning based on mental representations rather than external-world referents)

Body 2: Potential other research interests in semantics

Body 3: Potential research interests in syntax

Body 4: Some research interests on the side (what I mentioned earlier)

Conclusion: I'm not sure what to say here lol. Maybe I won't put a conclusion.

 

Lets assume that all paragraphs are the same length. Then you are planning to write a statement that is 80% research interests, no background on who you are, and no fit paragraph. That seems problematic. I also worry that discussing many unrelated interests will make it seem like you're all over the place.

 

I think it would make more sense to have some combination of intro+body 1 as your first paragraph (you don't need to summarize previous work in your SOP; just say what you want to do, perhaps mentioning work you would like to build on if you feel that it's necessary, but not as a lit review). Explain what research questions interest you, and (if you can) why they are interesting/important. Then I'd like to see a discussion of why the school you're applying to is a good place to study your interests, and a discussion of your background and experiences which have prepared you to study those questions. If there are any significant projects you've worked on during undergrad, you could summarize one/more of them and describe what the outcomes were and what you learned from the project. If your discussion in the beginning of the SOP is very narrow (that is, if you're basically proposing one particular project or asking one particular question), then it may be a good idea to have a paragraph that discusses other research interests that you hope to study in grad school--mention that you have broader research interests in syntax and semantics and give examples of topics that interest you. You don't need to propose a project or research question for each one, though if you've thought something out then elaborating on one idea might be a nice addition. This could be a fine conclusion to your SOP, along with a very short discussion of post-PhD plans (which, since you really can't know at the moment, will probably say something vague about a career in academia, building on the education you'll obtain at school X and exploring in even more depth questions about Y). 

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Hi fuzzylogician

 

 

I have a very keen interest in language evolution and it is really central to my current research project. However, sometime language evolution seems to be taken for a byword for the origin of language and/or biolinguistics, which are not really my field of interest. Worse, I get the impression that within the linguistic community the origin of language is often a topic viewed with a bit of derision or even dismissed as an unscientific or impossible field. (case in point the 1866 Linguistic Society of Paris ban on debates about the origin of language) 

 

Since my interest in language evolution is with the view of language itself as a complex adaptive system, should I try to distance myself from these other fields by clarifying my interest? Its not that I'm entirely disinterest in these other fields, just that they don't bear directly on my line of questioning. Would this be a scenario where its worth mentioning things that I'm not interested in?

 

p.s. I love the depth with which you've responded to Chiki's post. Thank you

 

It's definitely a good idea to clearly define what you mean by 'language evolution,' both in terms of what the term means to you and in terms of the kinds of questions that you want to study. You're right that biolinguistics doesn't go over well in many North American linguistics programs. If you want to study in a traditional linguistics program, it'll be important for you to explain how this program can support your interests. This would involved a detailed discussion of "fit," in particular addressing why you want to study your interests from within a linguistics department. 

 

A question that I imagine will be on adcom's minds and that you'll need to address in detail is how they are supposed to support the aspects of your interests that aren't traditionally done in linguistics programs. The interests you describe (which I am looking at over at the Fall 2015 applications thread) involve some aspects that linguists in the programs you mention can support you in, including studying the theory, psycholinguistics, modeling, but also aspects that it's harder to see how you'd combine into a traditional program (e.g. application to dancing, AI). You want to identify the faculty members who could help you with the diachronic aspects of your project, and the ones that can help with the modeling, and the ones that could perhaps help with AI, etc. and you want to explain how you'd deal with it if there is no one around to help with something (which, given the nature of your project, seems fairly likely). You should also be aware that not everyone is going to find a project about dance acceptable, so I think you need to be very explicit about why you think that studying dance can be informed by a linguistics education, and you need to be aware that if you go to a traditional linguistics program, there will be a lot of theoretical work you'd need to do, especially in your first year or so, which may not involve the study of dance. I think in your case it'd be important to discuss this very explicitly and say why you think that getting a strong background in various subfields of theoretical linguistics will inform your work. Basically, work very hard to tie your research to what's traditionally done in the program, and show them how you'd deal with the expansions to areas where there will be not a lot of support for what you plan to do. Show them how you can be a successful student in their program.

 

This may be a case where it's useful to explain what you don't do, though you'll need to be very careful about how you phrase it, so it doesn't sound negative and doesn't come over as too presumptuous. It's a tricky one. My inclination is to say to keep that out, and instead concentrate on being precise and detailed about what you do want to do. Your profile says you're in Montreal. If you're studying at McGill, most of the professors there attended programs like the ones you're applying to, so hopefully they can read your SOP and give you feedback on how a professor with an education like theirs sees your proposed project. If there is anyone around who can do that for you, I think it'll be very beneficial.

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OK, I'm back.

 

 

Lets assume that all paragraphs are the same length. Then you are planning to write a statement that is 80% research interests, no background on who you are, and no fit paragraph. That seems problematic. I also worry that discussing many unrelated interests will make it seem like you're all over the place.

 

I think it would make more sense to have some combination of intro+body 1 as your first paragraph (you don't need to summarize previous work in your SOP; just say what you want to do, perhaps mentioning work you would like to build on if you feel that it's necessary, but not as a lit review). Explain what research questions interest you, and (if you can) why they are interesting/important. Then I'd like to see a discussion of why the school you're applying to is a good place to study your interests, and a discussion of your background and experiences which have prepared you to study those questions. If there are any significant projects you've worked on during undergrad, you could summarize one/more of them and describe what the outcomes were and what you learned from the project. If your discussion in the beginning of the SOP is very narrow (that is, if you're basically proposing one particular project or asking one particular question), then it may be a good idea to have a paragraph that discusses other research interests that you hope to study in grad school--mention that you have broader research interests in syntax and semantics and give examples of topics that interest you. You don't need to propose a project or research question for each one, though if you've thought something out then elaborating on one idea might be a nice addition. This could be a fine conclusion to your SOP, along with a very short discussion of post-PhD plans (which, since you really can't know at the moment, will probably say something vague about a career in academia, building on the education you'll obtain at school X and exploring in even more depth questions about Y). 

 

Wow :o Thank you. Just one question:

 

 

 

Then I'd like to see a discussion of why the school you're applying to is a good place to study your interests,

 

First, you sound like a graduate program director. It's quite funny.

 

How important is this? It's easy enough for Harvard and stuff (I'll just ask my graduate program director here for help if I can't think of anything) but I'm planning to apply to a few safety schools, like Boston University and stuff, and I have nothing good to say about them apart from the fact that they're safety schools and I want to live in Boston with a decent stipend. I guess I need to do some research on their faculty?

 

Whoops, Boston University only has an applied linguistics program. But you get the idea anyway.

 

What would I say for somewhere like MIT? I can't think of anything other than it has a lot of semanticists and its philosophy department and linguistics department are combined, so it'd be a good place for me to develop both philosophically and linguistically.

Edited by Chiki
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First, you sound like a graduate program director. It's quite funny.

I'm not a grad program director but I've been editing SOPs for several years now. And, you know, it's not like this is a grant application. This is me helping you figure stuff out at midnight on a school day on a grad school message board.

 

 

How important is this? It's easy enough for Harvard and stuff (I'll just ask my graduate program director here for help if I can't think of anything) but I'm planning to apply to a few safety schools, like Boston University and stuff, and I have nothing good to say about them apart from the fact that they're safety schools and I want to live in Boston with a decent stipend. I guess I need to do some research on their faculty?

 

What would I say for somewhere like MIT? I can't think of anything other than it has a lot of semanticists and its philosophy department and linguistics department are combined, so it'd be a good place for me to develop both philosophically and linguistically.

I'm sure it's possible to get in without a personalized fit paragraph, but you'll be forcing the adcom to work extra hard to identify fit for you instead of helping them see it. A personalized fit paragraph normally indicates that you've made the choice to apply to the school for good reasons and have actually thought it through. I have to wonder how much sense it makes for you to apply to a school that you have nothing good to say about. Suppose you get in -- if there is no one there you could work with, what kind of education will you get? Anyway, if there is nothing good you can say about BU, then I guess don't say anything. Same goes for MIT. I can't do this work for you; this is the hard part and this is where you need to do your own legwork. 

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I'm not a grad program director but I've been editing SOPs for several years now. And, you know, it's not like this is a grant application. This is me helping you figure stuff out at midnight on a school day on a grad school message board.

 

I don't know how you find the time for so many great post, but your advice is very much appreciated!

 

Thank you for you very helpful response.

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I don't know how you find the time for so many great post, but your advice is very much appreciated!

 

Thank you for you very helpful response.

 

It's called structured procrastination :P.  I can think of lots of less productive ways to avoid editing my research statement right now, but this one makes me feel like I'm still doing something useful (even if it's not what I'm supposed to be doing).

 

And you're very welcome :) 

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  • 2 months later...

                I. Determine your purpose in writing the statement

Usually the purpose is to persuade the admissions committee that you are an applicant they should choose. You may want to show that you have the ability and motivation to succeed in your field, or you may want to show the committee that, on the basis of your experience, you are the kind of candidate who will do well in the field. Whatever the purpose, it must be explicit to give coherence to the whole statement.

    1. Pay attention to the purpose throughout the statement so that extraneous material is left out.

      2. Pay attention to the audience (committee) throughout the statement. Remember, your audience is made up of faculty members who are 
          experts in their field. They want to know that you can think as much as what you think.

 

II. Determine the content of your statement

Be sure to answer any direct questions fully. Analyze the questions or guidance statements for the essay completely and answer all parts.

For example: "What are the strengths and weaknesses in setting and achieving goals and working through people?" In this question there are actually six parts to be answered 1) strengths in setting goals, 2) strengths in achieving goals, 3) strengths in working through people, 4) weaknesses in setting goals, 5) weaknesses in achieving goals and 6) weaknesses in working through people. Pay attention to small words. Notice: This example question says through people not with people, if it says with people, answer that way. 
  
 

Usually graduate and professional schools are interested in the following:

1. Your purpose in graduate study. This means you must have thought this through before you try to answer the question.

2. The area of study in which you wish to specialize. This requires that you know the field well enough to make such decision.

3. Your future use of your graduate study. This will include your career goals and plans for your future.

4. Your special preparation and fitness for study in the field. This is the opportunity to relate your academic background with your extracurricular experience to show how they unite to make you a special candidate.

5. Any problems or inconsistencies in your records or scores such as a bad semester. Be sure to explain in a positive manner and justify the explanation. Since this is a rebuttal argument, it should be followed by a positive statement of your abilities.

6. Any special conditions that are not revealed elsewhere in the application such as a large (35 hour a week) work load outside of school. This too should be followed with a positive statement about yourself and your future.

7. You may be asked, "Why do you wish to attend this school?" This requires that you have done your research about the school and know what its special appeal is to you.

8. Above all this, the statement is to contain information about you as a person. They know nothing about you that you don’t tell them. You are the subject of the statement.

 

  1. Determine your approach and the style of the statement

There is no such thing as "the perfect way to write a statement." There is only the one that is best for you and fits your circumstances. 1. There are some things the statement should not be:

    1. Avoid the "what I did with my life" approach. This was fine for grade school essays on "what I did last summer." It is not good for a personal statement.
    2. Equally elementary is the approach "I’ve always wanted to be a __________." This is only appropriate if it also reflects your current career goals.
    3. Also avoid a statement that indicates your interest in psychology is because of your own personal psychotherapy or a family member’s psychological disturbance. While this may have motivated many of us to go on to graduate study in psychology, this is not what your audience is necessarily looking for in your statement.
    4. These are some things the statement should do:
    1. It should be objective yet self-revelatory. Write directly and in a straightforward manner that tells about your experience and what it means to you. Do not use "academese" or jargon.
    2. It should form conclusions that explain the value and meaning of your experiences such as: (1) what you learned about yourself; (2) about your field; (3) about your future goals; and (4) about your career concerns.
    3. It should be specific. Document your conclusions with specific instances or draw your conclusions as the result of individual experience. See the list of general Words to Avoid Using without Explanation listed below.
    4. It should be an example of careful persuasive writing.

 

Click on the following link to watch a 7 minute video this might help you.xx

 

http://clip.mn/tag/MTVlNmMxMWQ

Edited by saqqi01
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